RPP BAHASA INDONESIA SMA KURIKULUM 2013 REVISI 2016 PDF

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Rpp Bahasa Indonesia Sma Kurikulum 2013 Revisi 2016 Pdf

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As the product goes into production, manufacturability shortcomings manifest as painfully slow ramps shown in the center graph in Figure , sometimes taking months to reach the target production volume. Manufacturability problems also show up as poor quality and disappointing productivity which may take even longer to attain acceptable levels.

Not only do these delays and shortcomings disappoint customers, but they also consume a great deal of resources — resources that should have been utilized more wisely at the proactive beginning, not the inefficient reactive end of the project. This, of course, emphasizes the importance of measuring time-to-market to the time of full stabilized production.

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If each team member has a versatile background and can represent multiple specializations, then the team would be smaller and easier to manage. The complete team is formed at the very beginning to simplify concepts and optimize product architecture and the thorough up-front work that is discussed below. The activities start with a methodical product definition. The result is that the volume ramp is completed quickly. Similarly, normal quality and productivity targets are reached rapidly. One important result is the ability to cut in half the real time-to-market as measured to stable production.

The other equally important result is that the cost of resource-hours the areas under either curve is half compared to the traditional model. Companies on the upper time line need shift from a back-loaded model to front loaded one. Section 2. The most immediate way to make resources available for a new project is to avoid wasting resources trying to reduce cost after design.

The consequences of inadequate resources at the beginning are significant delays and wasted resources, which in turn will delay other projects and deplete their resources, while expending more development cost for all projects 2 Project Timeline has higher proportion of up-front work The second step is to assure the project time-line has a high enough proportion of up-front time to assure that the project has enough time do Concurrent Engineering.

Thorough up-front work greatly shortens the real time-to-market and avoids wasting time and resources on firefighting, change orders, and ramp problems, as shown in the top bar of Figure 3.

The author first saw that graph in a Sematech presentation to the semiconductor equipment industry, which indicates its value for the development of challenging products. Figure 3. B However, thorough up-front work in the lower time-line can cut the real time-to-market in half because it is much easier and faster to optimize the design with early teamwork than later with change orders. C No significant delays in alpha and beta units occur, since the design phase proceeds quicker after thorough up-front work so it is finished about the same time in either time-line.

Do not offer or accept management or customer-specified intermediate deadlines that would compromise thorough up-front work.

Thorough up-front work is the most important principle to reduce the real time-to-market. Which is the time to stable production in the center graph in Figure 2. In fact, a commercial airplane manufacturer spent one hour discussing this graphic at all four seminars. The key elements of an optimal architecture phase are the following:.

Validate assumptions. Understand, scrutinize, evaluate, challenge, and vet assumptions, especially those that will commit the project to a certain path. Diverse opinions are sorted out early with respect to diverse data about customer needs and and project assumptions.

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Regulatory compliance. Categorize changes that would force a requalification, especially customer-induced changes and changes needed for manufacturability. Based on that, formulate plans to minimize customer changes in the first bullet above and use Concurrent Engineering to design the product for manufacturability, using the steps below.

Concept selection and early development of functional concept that will be assured in production environments, with anticipated production line people and readily available parts and materials. Concepts should be generated with clever, practical innovations for the product, processing, and optimal modularity to handle anticipated variety.

Lessons learned. With the multifunctional team in place, the next step is to understand the lessons learned from previous or similar product development efforts. This will show the team what worked and all the things that cause problems and delays, as shown in the upper bars in both of the above charts. Lessons learned should be thoroughly investigated and understood to learn what worked well and what caused problems in previous projects see Section 3.

Issues raised and resolved before proceeding further, thus minimizing: a requiring expensive, risky, and time-consuming work-arounds on every build, or b the chances that these issues will have to be resolved later when changes are expensive, hard to implement, and may, in turn, induce yet more changes.

The architecture should be optimized for the minimum total cost, for designed-in quality and reliability, for manufacturability, serviceability, and for flexibility and customizability.

The architecture may need to be optimized for product families, variety, extensions, next generations, contingencies, and growth. The Design Phase Considerations and Methodologies With the thorough up-front work done right, the actual design phase can proceed quickly and smoothly, in half the usual time, as shown in Figure 3. According to the authors of the book that started the Lean Production movement in the U.

They effective expand the size of the ign team without hiring any more employees or reassigning them from other projects.

This also avoids losing your scarce resources to deal with problems cause by low-bid vendors or vendors who just build-to-print whatever your sent them in a request-for-quotation. Tooling and processing development should be started early in which all potential concepts have enough concurrent engineering to vet potential production approaches for feasibility and assure adequate production and supply chain capacity will be achieved without delays for tooling problems.

Part and Material availability can be assured by selecting them for availability, not just function. Section 5. Basing production designs on hard-to-get parts, which may have been selected for a proof-of-principle, may compromise order fulfillment and ultimately limit growth.

Selecting parts for available needs to be done all along because availability problems are hard to remedy after qualification. Tolerances are appropriately tight and consistently achievable at low cost and fastest throughput. Avoid basing research on excessively tight tolerances that carries into production and gets locked in by qualifications.

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Skill Demands. Never exceed the capability of production-line workers in your plant or contract manufacturers. Avoid building proofs-of-concept that can only be built by highly skilled scientists, engineers, or prototype technicians because once approved, qualified, and put into production, high skill production-line workers will be needed, who may be hard to find, train, and retain, and may limit growth.

Further, if not managed really well, dependence on skilled labor may cause quality vulnerabilities. Raise cost, and delay the launch.

Off-the-shelf parts. Design teams should focus their valuable resources on the crown jewels, which are what customers will download your products for — and get the rest off-the-shelf, whenever possible. For example: Customers download electronic products for the unique, innovative features and functions they accomplish, not routine computations, controls, communications, and power supplies that are just expected to work reliably.

Customers download mechanical products for the unique, innovative structures or motions they do, not routine motions, controls, enclosures, and structures that support the crown jewels and work reliability. What is needed from these routine support parts is adequate functionality, assured availability at any volumes, no risk, and high quality and reliability. But, despite these opportunities, most design teams do not even consider off-the-shelf parts because of the following inhibitions that can be set straight by these principles:.

In fact, the product will be better if everyone focuses on what is really leading-edge. Bottom line: if OTS parts are not considered early enough, then arbitrary decisions preclude their use — for example, if circuitry is designed with too many voltages, that may preclude reliable off-the-shelf power supplies.

T he paradox of off-the-shelf parts is that designers may have to first choose the best off-the-shelf parts and then literally design the product around them. But it may be worth it to focus finite resources and time on your crown jewels. Jab bhi teri yaad download. Until a company or division effort establishes standard parts lists Chapter 5 , the project should standardize on key parts for the product, at least for the following categories before detailed design starts:.

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Concurrent Engineering Design Stage

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Concurrent Engineering Product Design

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