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The higher the temperature of a body, the faster its molecules are moving. In the temperature scale that is most natural to scientific theory, the Kelvin K scale, zero corresponds to zero molecular motion. On Earth, an input of energy is required to lift an object because the gravitational pull of the Earth opposes that movement. If an object, such as an apple, is lifted above your head, the input energy is stored in a form called gravitational potential energy often just potential energy or gravitational energy.

That this stored energy exists is obvious if you release the apple and observe the subsequent conversion to kinetic energy. The gravitational force pulling an object towards the Earth is called the weight of the object, and is equal to its mass, m, multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity, g which is 9.

Note that although everyday language may treat mass and weight as the same, science does not. The potential energy in joules stored in raising an object of mass m in kilograms to a height H in metres is given by the following equation see Figure 1. Electrical energy Gravity is not the only force influencing the objects around us. On a scale far too small for the eye to see, electrical forces hold together the atoms and molecules of all materials; gravity is an insignificant force at the molecular level.

The electrical energy associated with these forces is the third of the basic forms.

Every atom can be considered to consist of a cloud of electrically charged particles, electrons, moving incessantly around a central nucleus. When atoms bond with other atoms to form molecules, the distribution of electrons is changed, often with dramatic effect. Thus chemical energy, viewed at the atomic level, can be considered to be a form of electrical energy.

When a fuel is burned, the energy liberated the chemical energy is converted into heat energy. Essentially, the electrical energy released as the electrons are rearranged that is, the net release of energy from the breaking and forming of bonds is converted to the kinetic energy of the molecules of the combustion products. A more familiar form of electrical energy is that carried by electric currents organized flows of electrons in a material, usually a metal. In metals, one or two electrons from each atom can become detached and move freely through the lattice structure of the material.

These free electrons allow metals to carry electrical currents. To maintain a steady current of electrons requires a constant input of energy because the electrons continually lose energy in collisions with the metal lattice which is why wires get warm when they carry electric currents. Voltage in volts is a measure of the electrical potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit, analogous to height in the measurement of gravitational potential energy see above.

In a typical power station, the input fuel is burned and used to produce high-pressure steam, which drives a rotating turbine.

This in turn drives an electrical generator, which operates on a principle discovered by Michael Faraday in a voltage is induced in a coil of wire that spins in a magnetic field. Connecting the coil to an electric circuit will then allow a current to flow. The electrical energy can in turn be transformed into heat, light, motion or whatever, depending upon what is connected to the circuit. Electricity is often used in this way, as an intermediary form of energy: it allows energy released from one source to be converted to another quite different form, usually at some distance from the source.

Another form of electrical energy is that carried by electromagnetic radiation.

More properly called electromagnetic energy, this is the form in which, for example, solar energy reaches the Earth. Electromagnetic energy is radiated in greater or lesser amounts by every object. It travels as a wave that can carry energy through empty space.

The length of the wave its wavelength characterizes its form, which includes X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared radiation, visible light, radio waves and microwaves. Nuclear energy The fourth and final basic form of energy, bound up in the central nuclei of atoms, is called nuclear energy.

The technology for releasing it was developed during the Second World War for military purposes, and subsequently in a more controlled version for the commercial production of electricity.

Nuclear power stations operate on much the same principles as fossil fuel plants, except that the furnace in which the fuel burns is replaced by a nuclear reactor in which atoms of uranium are split apart in a fission process that generates large amounts of heat. The energy source of the Sun is also of nuclear origin. Here the process is not nuclear fission but nuclear fusion, in which hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium atoms such enormous numbers of these reactions take place that massive amounts of solar radiation are generated in the process.

Attempts to imitate the Sun by creating power-producing nuclear fusion reactors have been the subject of many decades of research and development effort but have yet to come to fruition. Conversion, efficiencies and capacity factors When energy is converted from one form to another, the useful output is never as much as the input.

Some inefficiencies can be avoided by good design, but others are inherent in the nature of the type of energy conversion. Heat, as already indicated, is the kinetic energy of randomly moving molecules, an essentially chaotic form of energy.

No machine can convert this chaos completely into the ordered state associated with mechanical or electrical energy. This is the essential message of the second law of thermodynamics: that there is necessarily a limit to the efficiency of any heat engine. Some energy must always be lost to the external environment, usually as lowtemperature heat. Box 2. When considering the economics of a power plant, rather than just its efficiency, it is useful to have a measure of its productivity in practice.

One measure of this is the plants capacity factor CF : its actual output over a given period of time divided by the maximum possible output. The terms plant factor and load factor are also sometimes used as synonyms for capacity factor in the context of power systems. For example, energy from burning coal may be converted in a power station to electricity, which is then distributed to households and used in immersion heaters to heat water in domestic hot water tanks. The energy released when the coal is burned is called the primary energy required for that use.

The amount of electricity reaching the consumer, after conversion losses in the power station and transmission losses in the electricity grid, is the delivered energy. After further losses in the tank and pipes, a final quantity, called the useful energy, comes out of the hot tap. World total annual consumption of all forms of primary energy increased more than tenfold during the twentieth century, and by the year had reached an estimated EJ exajoules , or some 12 million tonnes of REnEwABlE EnERGy oil equivalent Mtoe Figure 1.

As the figure reveals, fossil fuels provided more than four fifths of the total. The world population in was some 6. The hydro contribution is the actual electrical output. Total: about EJ equivalent to12 billion tonnes of oil, or an average continuous rate of energy consumption of The contributions are as follows: oil: Societies went on to develop ways of harnessing the movements of water and wind, both caused by solar heating of the oceans and atmosphere, to grind corn, irrigate crops and propel ships.

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Technologies for harnessing the power of Sun, firewood, water and wind continued to improve right up to the early years of the industrial revolution. However, by then the advantages of coal, the first of the fossil fuels to be exploited on a large scale, had become apparent. These highly- concentrated energy sources soon displaced wood, wind and water in the homes, industries and transport systems of the industrial nations.

Concerns about the adverse environmental and social consequences of fossil fuel use, such as air pollution or mining accidents, and about the finite nature of supplies, have been voiced intermittently for several centuries.

The development of nuclear energy following Second World War raised hopes of a cheap, plentiful and clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, nuclear power development has stalled in some countries in recent years, due to increasing concerns about safety, cost, waste disposal and weapons proliferation, although in other countries nuclear expansion is continuing.

Ideally, a sustainable energy source is one that: I is not substantially depleted by continued use I does not entail significant pollutant emissions or other environmental problems I does not involve the perpetuation of substantial health hazards or social injustices. Before going on to introduce the renewables in more detail, it is first useful to review some basic energy concepts that may be unfamiliar to readers who do not have a scientific background. For a more detailed discussion of basic energy concepts, see, for example, Energy Systems and Sustainability Everett et al.

Force, energy and power The word energy is derived from the Greek en in and ergon work. These and other processes can be described in terms of diverse forms of energy, such as thermal energy heat , chemical energy in fuels or batteries , kinetic energy in moving substances , electrical energy, gravitational potential energy, and various others.

In the main, this book uses the international SI system of units. The conversion factors between these and other units commonly used in the field of energy can be found in Appendix A. There are seven basic units, of which the three which are relevant here are the metre m , the kilogram kg and the second s. The units for many other quantities are derived from the basic units.

Others have been given specific names, such as the: I newton N for force I the joule I for energy I the watt W for power. Large quantities are specified using multipliers see Table 1. Thus, a kilowatt written as 1 kW is a thousand watts. Note that, unless otherwise stated, in this book the multiplier M and the terms billion and trillion are as defined in Table 1.

Thus the derived unit, the newton, is equivalent to kg In 5—2. In the real world, force is often needed to move an object even at a steady speed, but this is because there are opposing forces such as friction to be overcome.

Whenever a force is accelerating something or moving it against an opposing force, it must be providing energy. The unit of energy, the joule I , is defined as the energy supplied by a force of one newton in causing movement through a distance of 1 metre. So a joule is dimensionally equivalent to one newton metre N m]. The terms energy and power are often used informally as though they were synonymous e.

Power is the rate at which energy is being converted from one form to another, or transferred from one place to another. Its unit is the watt W , and one watt is defined as one joule per second hence a watt is equivalent to one I 3—1. Occasionally for example in Chapter 9 a power rating maybe specifically defined as MWe or MWt where the subscripts e and t refer to electrical and thermal energy respectively.

In practice, it is often convenient to measure energy in terms of the power used over a given time period. If the power of an electric heater is 1 kW, and it runs for an hour, we say that it has consumed one kilowatt-hour kWh of energy.

The overall effect of using statistics based on gross final energy is to give more prominence to hydro. This includes wood and other crops specifically grown for energy purposes.

Renewable energy proportions based on primary energy may thus give a misleading picture.

Sorrell et al. It shows the world oil supply broken into five categories: The world data for the category: The percentage. The curve continues into the projection zone by steadily falling to 15 million barrels per day in Energy use in the uK In the UK. Even more challenging is the need for new fields to be continuously discovered Figure 1.

This has serious implications for the UK. What remains is likely to be more expensive and in difficult areas such as the Arctic or in deep offshore wells IEA. The overall chart shows a slow rise in world oil supply from 65 million barrels per day in up to 81 million barrels per day in Existing oilfields have a limited life.

The UK energy system is described in more detail in Chapter 10 of this book. According to the International Energy Agency. In the UK. Even when energy has been delivered to customers in the various sectors. It starts with PJ of solid fuel. This brief introduction concentrates on one of these problems: The domestic sector consumes about PJ. The top bar shows primary energy. These include air pollution. It has four horizontal bars.

Renewable_Energy_01.1.pdf - Chapter I Introducing renewable...

The second bar shows delivered energy broken down by fuel. The x-axis is marked in petajoules and runs from 0 to Some 6.

It starts with about PJ of coal use. Figure 2. The surface temperature of the Earth establishes itself at an equilibrium level where the incoming energy from the Sun balances the outgoing infrared energy re-radiated from the surface back into space see Chapter 2. The fourth bar shows delivered energy by end use.

The third bar shows delivered energy broken down by sector. Space and water heating uses about PJ. The biomass contribution is further broken down into different categories as follows: The main contributors were wind. In the total of the other three renewables added a further 1 TWh to bring the total to about 6 TWh.

The entries for the pie chart are as follows: Scientists estimate IPCC. In renewables contributed 6. It is in the form of a pie chart. Since the industrial revolution. Total hydro has remained relatively constant at about 5 TWh over the total period though there were noticeable dips to 4 TWh in and and to 3 TWh in The principal contributor to these increased emissions is carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels.

Thus the total contribution from renewables was about 26 TWh in which represented about 6. There is a footnote which reads: Total contribution PJ or 3. DECC b Figure 1.

The vertical axis represents the contribution of renewable sources to electricity generation in TWh and the horizontal axis represents the year.

Landfill gas started to increase in but remained relatively constant at about 1TWh until about after which it grew steadily reaching about 5 TWh in The total.

If emissions are not curbed. There have also been significant additional contributions from emissions of methane. Wind power started growing in when it contributed about 1 TWh growing slowly until when it was contributing about 2 TWh then more rapidly after that so that it was contributing about 10 TWh in These grew slowly reaching about 2 Gt in and 3 Gt in Boden et al.

Emissions then remained relatively constant until about when emissions from coal grew steadily from about 4 Gt in to about 9 Gt in then more rapidly reaching about 12 Gt in Natural gas only started showing on the graph after The year is on the x-axis and is marked in 10 year intervals.

In the decadal average temperature difference datd was about —4. The threat of global climate change. In total Co2 emissions were below 1 Gt. The line itself represents the measured difference in decadal average temperature from the — average. The total of coal plus oil plus gas grew from about 12 Gt in to 19 Gt in then more rapidly reaching 24 Gt in The scale is based on the difference between the actual temperature and the average temperature between and Beyond Such rises would probably be associated with an increased frequency of climatic extremes.

The year is on the x-axis and is marked in 50 year intervals. The area under each line and above the line below is shaded to represent the contributions of coal. Emissions from oil were zero or negligible until about when they started to grow.

Co2 emissions in Gt per year are on the y-axis with the scale being from zero to 35 Gt y-1 in 5 Gt intervals. Twidell and Weir.

This implies that global CO2 emissions need to peak almost immediately and then fall sharply over the course of the rest of this century Allen et al. Emission reductions on this scale will inevitably involve a switch to lowor zero-carbon energy sources such as renewables.

Coloured arrows show it split into five portions over a landscape of greenery. From Figure 1. The five arrows are labelled: The rock substrate is also visible at the front of the drawing. The result is a massive heat flow towards the poles.

Solar radiation can also be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaic PV modules. The water vapour condenses as rain to feed rivers. Solar energy: Solar thermal energy conversion is described in Chapter 2. The energy in such currents can be harnessed. Through photosynthesis in plants. Wave power. If biofuels and hydro power are included. Solar photovoltaics is described in Chapter 3. Wind power. At the time of writing. Solar energy can also be concentrated by mirrors to provide high-temperature heat for generating electricity.

Renewable_Energy_01.1.pdf - Chapter I Introducing renewable...

Sunlight falls in a more perpendicular direction in tropical regions and more obliquely at high latitudes. Where winds blow over long stretches of ocean. Two non-solar. It is also possible to harness the power of strong underwater currents. Biofuels are a renewable resource if the rate at which they are consumed is no greater than the rate at which new plants are re-grown — which.

These have been used for centuries to provide hot water or steam. When operated in this way. The high temperature of the interior was originally caused by gravitational contraction of the planet as it was formed. Biofuels can also be derived from wastes.

Heat from within the Earth is the source of geothermal energy. Although the combustion of biofuels generates atmospheric CO 2 emissions. If steam or hot water is extracted at a greater rate than heat is replenished from surrounding rocks.

In some places where hot rocks are very near to the surface. Various devices for exploiting this energy source. In some countries. Gaseous and liquid fuels derived from biological sources make significant contributions to the energy supplies of some countries.

Tidal energy. The precise values achieved will depend on the policies pursued and their effectiveness.

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To ensure that these targets are met.Shahadat Hussain Parvez. We may burn fuel in an a vehicle engine. The most common units and their conversion factors are listed in Appendix A. Every atom can be considered to consist of a cloud of electrically charged particles, electrons, moving incessantly around a central nucleus.

Energy conservation: the First Law of Thermodynamics The renewable energy technologies described in this book transform one form of energy into another the final form in many cases being electricity. Yousef Yohanna. Box 2.